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Your Results:
Bone Density

For an explanation of BONE QUALITY results, click HERE.

Bone mineral density and quality results from EchoS are available immediately.

Two scans are done; one on your lower spine and the second on your left hip. If the left hip can't be scanned (you might have had a hip replacement for instance) the right hip will be done.

The results will show a number of scores/figures

Bone mineral density is measured in g/cm2

The report you will receive will show your BONE MINERAL DENSITY and also another graph to show your BONE QUALITY.

REMS test.jpg



(n.) Lack of agreement or consistency.

"the discordance between sales and evidence should be a focus”

But what do we mean by this?

Osteoporosis is a systemic condition and, by definition, will be found throughout the whole skeleton. 


A “discordant” bone density reading  would be a score that is widely different between the hip and the spine (the two major weight-bearing areas of the body, and therefore the best indicators of OP).  Any two readings that show a  >1.0 standard deviation between hip and spine are called a “discordance” , unless there is a clear clinical reason for this difference (such as a being immobile for a length or time, or in a wheelchair etc). 


Discordant scores (if no clinic evidence for them) strongly suggest that one of the scan ratings is incorrect and should be questioned;  DEXA results often show these discrepancies.   Many times this discordance is due to operator error or poor equipment calibration of the DEXA machines.  A REMS scan has no operator error neither can it be incorrectly calibrated so discordances do not occur (again, unless there is a clear clinical reason).   Therefore, if a woman has a DEXA scan showing a major discordance, and she has no obvious reasons for such a result, she should query the DEXA result with the local unit. If an answer is not forthcoming, asking for a second opinion is entirely reasonable and appropriate.



(n.) Agreement or consistency.

"the concordance between the teams' research results”

A hip and spine T-score reading that fits the formula of having no more than 1.0 SD between the two scores, and is therefore a correct score.

For more detailed information on concordance and quality control, click the button below:


Your bone densities are compared to those of a population of healthy 30-yr olds (this is the T-score).

Osteoporosis scale-100_edited.jpg

A score of 0 means your bone density is equal to the norm for a healthy young adult. Differences between your bone density and this healthy young adult norm are measured in units called "standard deviations".


The more standard deviations below 0, (indicated as negative numbers) the lower your bone density and the higher your risk of fracture. ​


A T-score greater than −1.0 is considered normal or healthy.


A T-score of between −1.0 and −2.5 indicates reduced bone density when compared to the average 30yr old. This is not osteoporosis but "OSTEOPENIA", a transitional state between normal and osteoporosis. ​


A T-score of −2.5 or lower indicates that you have osteoporosis. The greater the negative number, the more severe the osteoporosis.

NB, if you are menopausal, the Z-score provides a more accurate picture than the T-score.

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